Tatjana Ćebović, Jelena Arsenijević and Zoran Maksimović
Biochemistry Department, Medical Faculty Novi Sad, University of Novi Sad, Hajduk Veljkova 3, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
Wild-growing and cultivated plant material origin were localities in southern Banat and Mt. Vršačke planine. Headspace fractions were rich in limonene, myrcene, α-pinene and (E)-β-ocimene. Four compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of wild growing thyme: apigenin-7-O-glucuronide (1), rosmarinic acid (2), 3-O-(2-caffenyl)-rosmarinic acid (3) and 3-O-(methyl-2-caffenyl)-rosmarinic acid (4). Luteolin-7-O-diglucuronide (5) was isolated from the aqueous extract. Compounds 4 and 5 were isolated for the first time from plants of the genus Thymus. Deodorized water extract (DWE) contained 205.00 mg GA/g of phenolic compounds. Rosmarinic acid represented 71.11 mg/g of DWE, apigenin heterosides 1.28 mg/g, luteolin heterosides 4.09 mg/g. DWE exhibited strong total antioxidant activity (FRAP 2.53–5.33 mmol Fe/g) and DPPH scavenging activity (SC50 12.71–24.62 μg/mL). The strongest antimicrobial activity was exhibited against the strain of C. albicans (MIC 31.25–62.50 μL/mL). Antioxidant activity of DWE in vivo was investigated in carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress in rats. Higher doses of DWE (5%, m/V; 1.0–5.0 mL/kg b.w.) significantly reduced intensity of lipid peroxidation and preserved concentrations of glutathione. Possible mechanism of exhibited cytotoxic activity in vivo, which was investigated in mice with implanted Ehrlich carcinoma, could be related to the prooxidant activity of the extract in malignant cells.
Keywords: Herbal drug, essential oil, polar extracts, phenolic compounds, headspace, antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, cytotoxic activity.