H. Sharif, M.D. Mukhtar, Y. Mustapha and A.O. Lawal
Department of Applied Science, College of Science and Technology, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria
This study focused on evaluation of antimicrobial and toxicity profile of E. pulcherrima extract against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Antimicrobial activity was determined by Agar cup diffusion. The Tukey HSD analysis showed bioactivities of E.pulcherrima were part dependent with whole plant being the most bioactive. The ethyl acetate fraction of whole plant contains phytochemicals with remarkable activities against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, S. typhi, P. aeruginosa, M. auduoinii and A.flavus. Leakages of potassium ions from cells occurred in the sequence M.auduoinii > S.typhi > E.coli > P.aeruginosa > A.flavus > S.aureus. The leakages of proteins were in the order Microsporum auduoinii > P. aeruginosa, > E.coli, > S.aureus > S. typhi > A, flavus. Bioactivities of ethyl acetate extract were due to synergistic effects of different compounds. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity of E. pulcherrima extract presented LD50 of 3807.89mg/kg. Kidney function parameters indicate elevation of serum urea in control and group treated with 10mg/kg extract. Creatinine, electrolyte, ALAT, ASAT, ALPT, Protein Albumin and Bilirubin were within the normal values. Kidney, liver function parameters and relative organ weights were insignificant (P>0.05). Concentrations of E. pulcherrima extract did not negatively influence liver and kidney function parameters and have no hepato-toxic and nephron-toxic capabilities.
Keywords: Antimicrobial, Euphorbia pulcherrima, bacteria, fungi, hepato-toxic, nephron-toxic.