Evetlana Erokhina, Laura Pastorino and Victor Erokhin
Department of Informatics, Bioengineering, Robotics and Systems Engineering, University of Genoa, Via Opera Pia 13, 16145 Genoa, Italy
An ideal drug must be absolutely inert in normal conditions, providing release of active compounds only in diseased areas. In this respect, the architecture of the container is of the fundamental importance . Nanoengineered polymeric capsules  have required features. We describe here basic methods for the fabrication of such containers and give some particular examples of their use when the drug release is triggered by the presence of the disease itself  or by the soft external action , with no side effects on the adjacent tissues.
In particular, we will consider capsules, modified with antibodies to fine targeting; capsules with collagen for disease-induced release and capsules with bacteriorhodopsin for light-triggered release.
Capsules were characterized by fluorescence microscopy, SEM, and X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation.
Keywords: Polymeric capsules, Targeted delivery, triggered release.
 L. Pastorino, S. Erokhina, and V. Erokhin, Smart nanoengineered polymeric capsules as ideal pharmaceutical carriers, Curr. Org. Chem. 17, (2013), 58-64.
 E. Donath, G.B. Sukhorukov, F. Caruso, S.A. Davis, and H. Mohwald, Novel Hollow Polymer shells by colloid-templated assembly of polyelectrolytes, Angew. Chem. Int. Edit. (1998) 37, 2201-2205.
 S. Erokhina, O. Konovalov, P. Bianchini, A. Diaspro, C. Ruggiero, V. Erokhin, and L. Pastorino, Release kinetics of gold nanoparticles from collagen microcapsules by total reflection X-ray fluorescence, Colloids and Surfaces A (2013) 417, 83-88.
 S. Erokhina, L. Benassi, P. Bianchini, A. Diaspro, V. Erokhin, and M.P. Fontana, Light-driven release from polymeric microcapsules functionalized with bacteriorhodopsin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2009), 131, 9800-9804.