Adnan M. Massadeh, and Ala` Abdulkareem Al-Hosban
Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology P.O. Box 3030, Irbid 22110 Jordan
Six metals including Pb, Cd, Fe, Zn, Al, and As have been investigated in different Jordanian manufactured medicinal plant preparations in order to establish their normal concentrations range and consider their contents according to some worldwide permissible limit guidelines. Metal monitoring as a pattern recognition method is a promising tool in the characterization and/or standardization of phytomedicines. In the present work the content of Pb, Cd, Fe, and Zn were detected in twenty four samples representing phytopharmaceutical remedies from Jordan market by both Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) techniques. Absorption and emission methodologies like FAAS and ICP-OES allow reliable determination of element content in pharmaceutical quality control of medicinal plants. No significant difference for Pb, Cd, Fe and Zn concentrations between ICP-OES and FAAS readings according to ANOVA statistical analysis. Aluminum was determined by only ICP-OES and as was determined only by FAAS. Pb, Cd, Fe, Zn, and Al concentrations were the range of (30.84- 0.01 µg/g), (0.001- 0.85 µg/g), (781.90- 2.43 µg/g), (1.74- 0.05 µg/g), and (215.19- 1.81 µg/g) respectively. Arsenic content was below the detection limit in all the samples analyzed. Percent contribution of raw material heavy metal content for tablet dosage forms were estimated and were in the average of 88.27%, 80.80%, 93.10%, 84.31%, and 83.14% for Pb, Cd, Fe, Zn, and Al respectively.
Simple, rapid, and efficient method of preconcentration-separation of heavy metals from phytopharmaceutical product matrices using chelating resin (Chelex-100) has been used in order to overcome specific limitations encountered in the detection of these metals by FAAS and ICP-OES. Different variables were investigated (amount of resin, eluted sample volume, and pH). High metal recoveries were obtained for Pb, Cd, Fe, and Zn at pH value of 6, Chelex-100 amount of 4 g, and eluted sample volume of 25 mL.