REDUCING PATHOGENICITY IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS (T2DM) BY TARGETING OXIDATIVE STRESS
Aishah Adam, Cini Mathew John, Mohd Aidil Azahar and Rajesh Ramasamy
Faculty of Pharmacy, University Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia
Pathogenesis of T2DM is associated with oxidative stress in cells and tissues as consequence of overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including superoxide anion radicals in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. ROS and free radicals escalate metabolites of glycolysis which contribute to diabetic complications. Inefficient immunological responses in T2DM weaken the immune system and aggravate the situation. Therapeutic targets which modulate the immune system and reduce oxidative stress can ameliorate inflammation and tissue damage while protecting genes from mutations. Usage of existing oral anti-diabetic drugs has gradual secondary failure of weakening immune system. Herbal-based immunotherapy is being investigated through an integrated scientific approach. Herbs which lower hyperglycemia and modulate the immune system can minimize pathophysiology of diabetes and may provide beneficial effects in adjuvant management of T2DM.